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- Last updated July 2022

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This is one of my favorites!

This course is a complete immersion into the **fundamentals of computer graphics**! You'll learn how a software 3D engine works under the hood, and use the C programming language to write a complete **software rasterizer** from scratch; including textures, camera, clipping, and loading complex OBJ files. *Pixel per pixel, triangle per triangle, mesh per mesh.*

We'll review all the beautiful **math** that makes 3D computer graphics possible as we tackle all concepts from *first principles.* We'll also write a comprehensive software renderer that can display complex 3D objects on the screen **without** the help of any graphics API. **No** GPU, **no** OpenGL, **no** DirectX! Just a C compiler and a little bit of linear algebra is all we need to create a final project that is nothing short of amazing!

We'll simply use the command-line, a code editor, and a C compiler. All these tools are multi-platform, so you'll be able to code along on either **Windows**, **macOS**, or **Linux**!

Also, make sure you have **pen** and **paper** ready for the lectures. This course will probably be a little bit different than other programming courses you took before. We will take our sweet time and make sure we understand *every* formula we find along the way!

This is a self-contained course with **no** prerequisites. However, you will probably get the most out of it if you already know the basics of coding (if-else, loops, functions).

If you never programmed in C before, don't worry! Many successful students come from different languages like Java, Python, JavaScript, Swift, and others. We'll learn to work with the C language together.

**Gustavo Pezzi** is a university lecturer in London, UK. He has won multiple education awards as a teacher and is also the founder of pikuma.com.

Gustavo teaches fundamentals of computer science and mathematics; his academic path includes institutions such as Pittsburg State University, City University of London, and University of Oxford.

35 hours total length • 29 Chapters • Last updated July 2022

- Motivations & Learning Outcomes
- How to Take This Course

- Configuring Dependencies
- Project Folder Structure
- Configuring a Makfile
- Compiling on Linux
- Compiling on macOS
- Configuring Visual Studio on Windows

- Creating an SDL Window
- Declaring a Color Buffer
- Allocating and Freeing Memory
- Quiz: Memory Allocation
- SDL Texture
- Fullscreen Window
- Exercise: Drawing a Background
- Drawing Rectangles
- Quiz: Color Buffer

- Defining Header Files
- Quiz: Header Files

- A Function to Draw Pixels
- Vectors
- Declaring a Vector Type
- Declaring Structs
- Array of Vector Points
- Quiz: Vectors and Points

- Orthographic Projection
- Isometric Projection
- Perspective Projection
- Implementing the Perspective Divide
- Coordinate System Handedness
- Quiz: Perspective Projection

- Transforming Vectors
- Review of Sine, Cosine, and Tangent
- Quiz: Trigonometric Functions
- Rotating Vectors
- Proof of Angle Sine Addition
- Proof of Angle Cosine Addition
- Quiz: Rotating Vectors

- Fixing our Game Loop Timestep
- Using a Delay Function
- Constant Framerate and Variable Delta Time

- 3D Triangles and Meshes
- Vertices and Triangle Faces
- Triangle Edges
- Quiz: Joystick Input

- Line Equation
- DDA Line Drawing Algorithm
- Do We Need Bresenham Lines?
- Coding a Function to Draw Lines

- Dynamic Arrays in C
- Dynamic Mesh Vertices and Faces
- Defining the Project Playfield Graphics

- OBJ File Vertices and Faces
- Exercise: Loading OBJ File Content
- OBJ File Triangles and Quads

- Introduction to Back-face Culling
- Vector Magnitude
- Vector Addition
- Vector Subtraction
- Vector Scaling
- Vector Cross Product
- Finding the Triangle Normal Vector
- Dot Product
- Implementing the Back-face Algorithm
- Vector Normalization
- Quiz: Vector Operations

- Triangle Fill
- Flat-Top & Flat-Bottom Technique
- Flat-Top Triangle Code
- Flat-Bottom Triangle Code
- Avoiding Division by Zero
- Exercise: Different Rendering Methods
- Solid Color Triangle Faces

- Painter's Algorithm
- Exercise: Sorting Faces by Depth
- A Simple Sorting Function

- Matrices Review
- Matrix Operations
- Matrix Multiplication
- Exercise: Matrix Multiplication
- 2D Rotation Matrix

- 3D Scale Matrix
- 3D Translation Matrix
- 3D Rotation Matrices
- The World Matrix
- Order of Matrix Transformations
- Quiz: Matrix Transformations
- Translation is Not a Linear Transformation

- Defining a Projetion Matrix
- Populating the Perspective Projection Matrix
- Exercise: Projecting Negative Z Values
- Projection in OpenGL & DirectX
- Row-Major and Column-Major Order

- Flat Shaded Triangles
- Coding Flat Shading and Light
- Smooth Shading
- Gouraud Shading & Phong Shading

- Representing Textures in Memory
- Textured Triangles
- Textured Flat-Top Triangle
- Textured Flat-Bottom Triangle
- Barycentric Coordinates
- Barycentric Weights (α, β, γ)
- Coding Textured Triangles
- Quiz: Texture Mapping

- Perspective Correct Interpolation
- What Does "Affine" Mean?
- 3D UV Coordinates

- Decoding PNG Files
- Loading PNG File Content
- Freeing PNG Textures from Memory
- Quiz: PNG Files

- Loading OBJ Textures Attributes
- Preventing Texture Buffer Overflow
- Rasterization Rules
- Visualizing Textured OBJ Files

- Implementing a Z-Buffer
- Exercise: Z-Buffer for Flat-Shaded Triangles
- Z-Buffer for Flat-Shaded Triangles
- Reviewing Dynamic Memory Allocation

- Camera Space
- LookAt Camera Model
- LookAt Camera Transformations
- Implementing a Variable Delta Time
- Coding a Simple FPS Camera Movement
- Quiz: Camera Transformations

- Frustum Clipping
- Frustum Planes
- Exercise: Frustum Planes and Normals
- Computing Points Inside and Outside Planes
- Intersection Between Lines and Planes
- Clipping Polygon Against a Plane
- Coding the Function to Clip Polygons Against Planes
- Visualizing Clipped Triangles
- Horizontal and Vertical FOV
- Clipping Texture UV Coordinates
- Clipping Space
- Quiz: 3D Clipping
- Deciding What Not to Render

- Working with Static Variables
- Refactoring SDL Global Variables
- Refactoring Light Code
- Simulating Low-Resolution Display with SDL
- Exercise: Camera Pitch Rotation
- Implementing Camera Pitch Rotation

- Declaring Multiple Meshes
- Coding Multiple Meshes
- Coding Multiple Textures

- Finishing our Code
- Bonus Lecture: Handedness & Orientation
- Bonus Lecture: Dedicated Graphics Cards
- Bonus Lecture: Modern Graphics APIs and Shaders
- Modern 3D Hardware Techniques
- Moving Forward

This course is **not** just a simple tutorial on how to use an existing graphics library or how to glue OpenGL or Vulkan code together. This course focus on the **foundation** of 3D graphics and provides a careful review of the math that underpins these concepts.

If you want to understand how computers display 3D objects on the screen and also learn some of the techniques used in the development of retro 3D games, then buckle up! This is going to be a 35-hour journey of pure nerd fun!

Isaac Shalom

"Teaching from the Ground Up.Wonderful course! I enjoy the fact that you are teaching core concepts from the ground up. Lectures are hands on and detail oriented which is the way to go."

21 Jan 2023

"Amazing course!Gustavo is a fantastic teacher, as he makes all these complex topics look easy. And fun! Getting my hands dirty and drawing each individual pixel serves as a wonderful foundation to keep learning 3D graphics, and to understand how modern graphics APIs work under the hood. And it also works as a phenomenal exercise to learn C at an beginner-intermediate level."

16 Jan 2023

"Just one comment! Awesome!Everyone that just wants to understand the elementary ingredients, how things fit together and get motivated on doing 3D stuff should do this course. It really wow'ed me and your teaching style, honestly, is tremendously motivating. Well done and please do a follow-up course but stick to C (oldskool will never die)."

14 Jan 2023

"My dreams have come true!

I have always dreamed about learning and understanding how computer graphics work. I wanted to know what is going on under the hood without using any special graphics library, because they also do something under the hood and I have wanted to know that.

If I give an example as a web developer, think it as learning the Javascript without using React.js library which is built on top of javascript :D I haven't wanted to learn React.js, I wanted to learn Javascript :D This course gave me this.

In the past, I tried to find a good resources a couple of times but each try made me feel more scared and confused. But this course made my dreams come true. It is a gold. It is really eye opening. I learned lots of things and beside that, Gustavo teaches everything in a special order and way and that prevents me to scare from lessons. I'm planning to take almost all of his courses, because each of his coursed give me my another dream :D

Thank you Gustavo, you are one of the best teacher I have ever seen. I wish you were my teacher in my whole school life."

11 Jan 2023

Joan Abad Reynoso

"Incredible Course!"

01 Jan 2023

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